HISTORY OF PERSIA CHAP. To remedy this state of affairs, Chengiz gave the supreme command to Ogotay, who ordered an assault. This was successful, and although the inhabitants offered a desperate resistance they were finally obliged to beg for terms, after having kept the Mongols at bay for more than six months. The victors collected the entire populace, and having gathered the artisans into a separate class massacred the other males and enslaved the women and children. After this atrocious act they turned the waters of the Oxus on to the site of the city, and in so doing diverted the river once again into its ancient channel, which led to the Caspian Sea.1 The Devastation of Khorasan^ A.H. 617 (1220)*—After spending the summer in the meadows of Nakhsab, Chengiz opened a fresh campaign by the capture of Termiz on the Oxus, which barred the road to Balkh. It was stormed on the tenth day and all its inhabitants were massacred. He then went into winter quarters close by and ravaged neighbouring Badakshan. In the spring he advanced on Balkh, which offered no resistance. But the conqueror, hearing that Jalal-u-Din was organizing an army at Ghazna, deliberately destroyed the city and massacred its thousands of inhabitants, preferring to leave a reeking charnel house in his rear rather than run the risk of having his communications cut Meanwhile Tuli had been despatched to complete the sack and ruin of Khorasan, which had already been occupied in parts by Chebe and Subutay, who had left governors in some of the cities. The inhabitants of Tus, seeing that the Mongol ruler was isolated, had risen against him ; but the revolt was easily put down by a body of three hundred Mongols stationed at Ustuva, the modern Kuchan, and on their demand even the ramparts of Tus were de- molished by the terrified townspeople. Tuli began his march into Khorasan in the autumn of A.D. I22Q, preceded by an advance force ten thousand strong, which besieged Nisa to avenge the death of its chief, who had been killed by an arrow shot from the city walls. Here again the town was stormed, and men, women, and children 1 ridt Chapter II. p. 23.